When the air spring works, the inner cavity is filled with compressed air to form a column of compressed air. With the increase of the vibration load, the height of the spring decreases, the volume of the inner cavity decreases, the stiffness of the spring increases, the effective bearing area of the air column in the inner cavity increases, and the bearing capacity of the spring increases.
When the vibration load is reduced, the height of the spring increases, the volume of the inner cavity increases, the stiffness of the spring decreases, and the effective bearing area of the air column in the inner cavity decreases. At this time, the bearing capacity of the spring decreases.
In this way, the air spring in the effective stroke, the height of the air spring, the volume of the inner cavity, the carrying capacity with the increase and decrease of the vibration load occurred a smooth flexible transmission, amplitude and the efficient control of the vibration load. You can also use the method of increasing or reducing the amount of air to adjust the stiffness and bearing capacity of the spring, but also can be equipped with auxiliary gas chamber, to achieve automatic regulation.
The air spring has excellent nonlinear hard characteristics, so it can effectively limit the amplitude, avoid resonance, and prevent impact. Air spring vibration isolation systems can be designed with very low natural frequencies, even below 1Hz, while rubber isolators typically have a natural frequency of 5-7Hz.
Therefore, the isolation efficiency of air spring is much higher than that of other vibration isolation elements, and it can isolate low-frequency vibration. Especially because the air spring vibration isolation system is easy to implement active control, as a vibration isolation element with adjustable nonlinear static and dynamic stiffness and damping characteristics, the air spring is more and more widely used.
Because of its special material and unique structure, the air spring has the characteristics that metal spring and rubber spring do not have:
1, the air spring has excellent nonlinear hard characteristics, can effectively limit the amplitude, avoid resonance, prevent impact. The nonlinear characteristic curve of the air spring can be designed ideally according to the actual needs, so that it has a lower stiffness value near the rated load.
2. Because the medium used by the air spring is mainly air, it is easy to implement active control.
3. The stiffness K of the air spring varies with the load P, so under different loads, the natural frequency of the vibration isolation system is almost unchanged, and the vibration isolation effect is almost unchanged.